Monday, July 6, 2020

Viewpoints on The Life - Free Essay Example

In many religion and culture death is viewed as one of the best things to happen to someone, but that all depends on what the person has the done and wither their death is painful or really easy is all in their hands. In this essay, I will be going to be analyzing and explaining Jobss argument about death. I will be discussing the ways I agree and the ways I disagree with his viewpoints from the text with the quotes. Because almost everything†all external expectations, all pride, all fear of embarrassment or failure†these things just fall away in the face of death(Jobs) and no one wants to die(Jobs) and There is no reason not to follow your heart.(Jobs) To explain my viewpoints I will be providing my own reasons and comparing them to the examples from the text. The first example from the text is Because almost everything all external expectations, all pride, all fear of embarrassment or failure†these things just fall away in the face of death.(Jobs) In this text, he implies that you forget everything when death you face death you forget everything and you do what you did not want to do or werent able to do. I strongly disagree with this quote because the last thing you would do is to keep whats important to you. Since you are dying you want to do what gives you pleasure in a good way and why spend the last few moments of your life being bored to death? It is also because embarrassing yourself is always a bad thing to do. Not only it stains your name forever but in many scenarios being embarrassed could even mean killing someone but you wouldnt do it because you are bad at killing which is a really bad thing but I could agree that you might try something new with the phrase All fear of embarrassment and you could ask someone out maybe or try to accomplish something that you have been thinking you might fail if you did. The second example from the text is no one wants to die.(Jobs) I strongly disagree with this because everyone wants to get out of this cruel world as fast as possible to not see all the violent actions. They do not want to live anymore because they might do something that they wouldnt want to do. But I could agree that it could also mean that the person has done something bad in life, if they believe in the afterlife, they would wanna live so they could pay for all their sins in some ways. But the person could also be someone who has a rich life and is happy with it and not believe in the afterlife resulting in them making the decision to stay alive for as long as possible to enjoy the joy and happiness they have. The last example but not least is There is no reason not to follow your heart.(Jobs) I strongly disagree with this quote because following your heart means anything. It could mean to blow up the world, do what Hitler did, or kill someone you dont like because you have no other reason to do it. Just because you want to do it it does not mean you can. It wouldnt be fair or nice to anyone who is going to be affected by the actions of your hearts wish. I could also agree that if the persons heart is pure and they do something to help humanity or something that could give only the individual joy while not hurting or harming anyone else, then it is truly fine. In conclusion, I strongly agree with all three quotes in some ways and I strongly disagree with all three quotes in other ways. It is truly magnificent how someone could analyze a sentence negatively and positively.

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

In Cold Blood Book Review - 896 Words

If one is interested in reading a disturbingly detailed and factually based novel that chronicles the course and motives of complex crime, read Truman Capote’s â€Å"In Cold Blood: A True Account of a Multiple Murder and Its Consequences.† If one scares easily, is squeamish or wants to avoid imagining a remorseless, brutal killer around every corner, do not. In his 1965 nonfiction novel, Capote paints a disturbingly vivid picture of the quadruple murder of the Clutters, a highly regarded and semi-wealthy farming family from Holcomb, Kansas. In Cold Blood examines the incentives and methods used by the killers, as well as the effect these murders had on the small Kansas town. â€Å"In Cold Blood,† what many consider Capote’s masterpiece, was†¦show more content†¦Nancy Ewalt says I did – screamed and screamed. I only remember Nancy’s Teddy bear staring at me. And Nancy.† Throughout â€Å"In Cold Blood,† Capote illustrates several journalistic characteristics, one of which being oddity. The murder of a nice family from a small town is certainly unusual, especially when no motives or suspects fit the case. Additionally, when the killers were caught, their indifference towards the crime varied drastically from what one would expect.Show MoreRelatedTruman Capote is Famous for His Novels, Stories and Screenplays816 Words   |  3 Pageswrote many great books including In Cold Blood, Other Voices, A Christmas Memory, The Thanksgiving Visitor, many more wonderful stories. In Cold Blood was published September twenty fifth in 1965. Truman Capote received much help in his four years of writing In Cold Blood from Harper Lee who wrote To Kill a Mockingbird. He was very famous and was seen at the best parties and clubs. There is even a movie of the story In Cold Blood made December twelfth 1967 Rated R. In Cold Blood was his most famousRead MoreCold Blood by Truman Capote900 Words   |  4 PagesIn 1965, Truman Capote created the infamous tale known as â€Å"In Cold Blood†. The book created the illusion of fantasy while based on reality. Many people were floored at the brilliance Ca pote demonstrated within the pages. The book took the literary concept of a novel with the literary elements of designed scenes, characters, a story formed with an introduction, rising action, climax and resolution to the real events surrounding the murder of the Clutter family. Those that worked in the field ofRead MoreBased on True Events A Glance into the Nonfiction Novel Genre979 Words   |  4 Pagesdescribe what was considered impossible to describe (Taylor). One way writers have been able to do this is through nonfiction novels. A nonfiction novel is a narrative, of book-length, that unfolds actual events and actual people written in the style of a novel (â€Å"Nonfiction Novel†). This style of a novel implies that the book being spoken of can be looked at as art as well as fact (Sharlett). In the mid 1960’s, a nonfiction novel journey began, beginning with the narrative journalistic qualitiesRead MoreIn Cold Blood by Gerald Clarke836 Words   |  3 Pagesyears Truman Capote spent writing the novel ‘In Cold Blood’. The film ‘Capote’ was by directed Bennett Miller after being adapted from a book of the same title, written by Gerald Clarke. It was set in Kansas and starred Seymour Hoffman as Truman Capote and c hronicled a six year period in the life of author Truman Capote whilst he wrote a book entitled ‘In Cold Blood’. The novel ‘In Cold Blood’ apparently gave rise to a new style of writing-as the book offered much from the murders’ perspective andRead MoreEssay on Mla Formats678 Words   |  3 PagesMLA Review Part 1: MLA In-text Citations – Rewrite the last line of each quote with a correctly formatted MLA in-text citation. 1. â€Å"One of his eyes resembled that of a vulture—a pale blue eye, with a film over it. Whenever it fell upon me, my blood ran cold; and so by degrees—very gradually—I made up my mind to take the life of the old man, and thus rid myself of the eye forever.† This is from the text book, Great Writing, which was edited by Harvey S. Wiener and Nora Eisenberg. It comesRead MoreTruman Capote Essay1439 Words   |  6 Pagesalcohol abuse became public when he was arrested for drunk driving. In 1982, he was told his brain was shrinking and that he had only six months to live. Truman died of alcohol/drug abuse on August 23, 1984 in Los Angeles, California. ( As an author he was widely praised for his style of writing after the publication of his earlier stories. Most of his short stories are based on childhood reflections. For example A Christmas Memory and The Thanksgiving Visitor are based on theRead MoreReview of Ray Bradburys Fahrenheit 451 Essay1496 Words   |  6 PagesReview of Ray Bradburys Fahrenheit 451 In Ray Bradburys novel Fahrenheit 451, the author utilizes the luxuries of life in America today, in addition to various occupations Read MoreEssay about Blood on the Forge1162 Words   |  5 Pagesï » ¿Bryan Casallo Dr. Bailey April 17, y Blood on the Forge Book Review â€Å"Steel is born in the flames and sent out to live and grow old.   It comes back to the flames and has a new birth.   But no one man could calculate its beginning or end.   It would end when the earth ended.   It seemed deathless.† (302) Blood on the Forge, by William Attaway, illustrates one of the most important historical event in United States history, The Great Migration. Attaway sets Blood on the Forge in the midst of the SteelRead MoreTruman Capote Essay1705 Words   |  7 Pageswrite in a set genre, he created his own which is commonly known as nonfiction fiction. His novels, short stories, and plays are mostly recognized as literary classics. He is most well-known for his novella Breakfast at Tiffany’s (1958), and In Cold Blood (1965). Many films and other television media have been produced from Truman Capote screenplays and stories. Truman led a hard childhood stricken with divorce and many relocations from place to place. Capote discovered his writing ability aroundRead MoreAnalysis Of The Film Of Cold Blood 1757 Words   |  8 Pages The film â€Å"In Cold Blood† is about a family that lived in Holcomb, Kansas, and was brutally murdered in 1959. The cluster family consist of the father, mother and two of their teenage daughters, Kenyon, and Nancy. There was no clear motive; the murderers were Dick Hickock and Perry Smith. They escaped after committing the murder, but after investigations, they were arrested(Crowther). Whereas, the â€Å"Black Dahlia† is a film about the murder and investigation of Elizabeth Short. Her body was found abandoned

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

A Brief Note On The Ancient Indian Period Essay - 1249 Words

Originate In the ancient Indian period, because the Hindu caste system did not lift the pain of practitioners. Siddhartha Gautama, the prince of ancient Kapilavastu (now Nepal), went to the rest of the world to continue to explore the true meaning of life. One day was observed under the Bodhi tree in their own feelings into the state of Nirvana. And then realized that he found a way to stop the pain, then he traveled to the Ganges to preach to others. According to his teaching methods, many people understand the truth and stop the pain. Gradually, then the resulting Buddhism. From the beginning of the Maurya Empire, Buddhism, respectively, to the north and south in two directions. South Buddhism (also known as the Ministry of the upper seat of Buddhism) spread through Ceylon to Southeast Asia, mainly in Southeast Asia, Indochina and other places. Northern Buddhism (also known as Mahayana Buddhism) arrived in Xinjiang through Kashmir, as early as the first century of the Eastern Han Dynasty Bud dhism was introduced to China. Northern Buddhism was formally introduced into Tibet in the 8th century. At this point, the Northern Buddhism is divided into Chinese Buddhism and Tibetan Buddhism. According to records, in 67 AD, the emperor of the Eastern Han dynasty dreamed a man who made of gold. Then he sent some people to the Western access to Kasyapa Matanga. And brought a lot of Buddha and Buddhist scriptures, with the White Horse Camel back to the capital Luoyang. The emperorShow MoreRelated Comparison of Platos The Last Days of Socrates and Hesses Siddhartha1699 Words   |  7 Pagesor philosophical ideas in the cultures that they focus on. While vast differences exist between the Greek and Indian values that shape their philosophies, they make similar assumptions as they attempt to make sense of the world. Understanding the dichotomous relationship of the soul and the body is integral to grasping the similarities and differences between the classical Greek and Indian paths because the way in which these concepts are understood defines the very nature of truth.    SocratesRead More The Historical Context of The Bhagavad Gita and Its Relation to Indian Religious Doctrines2505 Words   |  11 PagesThe Historical Context of The Bhagavad Gita and Its Relation to Indian Religious Doctrines The Bhagavad Gita is perhaps the most famous, and definitely the most widely-read, ethical text of ancient India. As an episode in Indias great epic, the Mahabharata, The Bhagavad Gita now ranks as one of the three principal texts that define and capture the essence of Hinduism; the other two being the Upanishads and the Brahma Sutras. Though this work contains much theology, its kernel is ethical and itsRead MoreMathematics Is That Of Pi ( ÃŽ   )1728 Words   |  7 Pagesexact value of Ï€ to a few decimal place values, although that hasn’t stopped mathematicians from pursuing a more accurate representation for its value throughout time. The earliest know approximations for the value of Ï€ have been identified on ancient clay tablets, dated 1900-1650 BC, from the Babylonian civilization which states the value of Ï€ as (25/8) = 3.125. and from the Egyptian civilization, from the Rhind Papyrus(1650BC), which approximates the value of Ï€ to be (16/9)^2 = 3.1605. AlthoughRead More Understanding The House Made of Dawn by Scott Momaday Essay1255 Words   |  6 PagesMomadays life greatly affects aspects of House Made of Dawn.   Navarro Scotte Mammedaty, a mixedblood of Kiowa and Cherokee descent, (as well as European ancestry on his mothers side) was born on February 27, 1934.   Numerous scholars and critics note that from the beginning, Momaday was placed between two cultures, and this position would be a powerful influence throughout his life.   In 1946, his family moved to Jemez Pueblo, New Mexico, the place that would later become the setting for HouseRead MoreGlimpses Of India’S Pre Indep endence Education System .1993 Words   |  8 Pagesof education system during pre-independence period of India. It elaborates education system as mentioned in different period like ancient ,vedic, Bhudhist, Medieval, modern as well as the system being followed at ancient University .It examines the education in Mughals period. The educational developments under British rule have been investigated . Education system in pre independence India The main aim of entire Indian social organization since ancient times for all the people is overall developmentRead MoreIs Beauty A Mathematical And Non Mathematical Context?1652 Words   |  7 Pagesespecially wanted to do something that was related to music. For this report, the main topic will be ‘Frequency, Pitch and Harmony’; this report will explain the maths behind this, how sound waves are connected, Pythagoras and his involvement and a brief history of maths and its link with music. 2. The Maths Behind The Music 2.1 What is music? Some consider defining the word ‘music’ quite hard, since many people have different opinions on what ‘music’ is. PersonallyRead MoreWritten Sources13656 Words   |  55 Pagesstudying early Indian history also follows this principle. In fact, sources of ancient Indian history are complicated, especially in the case of the written sources, so they need to be examined carefully. In the scope of my study, I will focus on two groups which are as follows: the analyzing and criticizing of these sources by professional historians and students of history. My method is to inform, explain, and summarize written sources and survey one typical example of early Indian history. I hopeRead MoreWritten Sources13665 Words   |  55 Pagesstudying early Indian history also follows this principle. In fact, sources of ancient Indian history are complicated, especially in the case of the written sources, so they need to be examined carefully. In the scope of my study, I will focus on two groups which are as follows: the analyzing and criticizing of these sources by professional historians and students of history. My method is to inform, explain, and summarize written sources and survey one typical example of early Indian history. I hopeRead MoreBritish Impact on India10478 Words   |  42 PagesIntroduction: The struggle for Indian independence was more than just an effort to break free of British colonial rule. It was part of a broader conflict that took place, and is in many ways ongoing, within Indian society. In order to organize resistance, upper-caste Indian activists needed to frame Indian identity as united against British colonialism. This was not in of itself difficult, but they wanted to maintain an upper-caste dominance over Indian society. This required upholding classicalRead MoreHerbal Medicine : The Use Of Natural Plant Substances For Treat And Prevent Illness1822 Words   |  8 Pagesit all begin? Throughout history there have been documents found from cultures all over the world revealing that the ancient Chinese, Indians, Babylonians, Egyptians, and Native Americans practiced the use of herbal medicine. The oldest known list of medicinal herbs is Shen Nung’s Pen Ts’ao or Shennong Ben Cao Jing dated back to 3000 B.C. (A Brief History of Herbalism. 2007) Ancient Greeks and Romans were also known to have herbalist surgeons traveling with the Roman army spreading their knowledge

Pentatonix by Pentatonix free essay sample

Five voices, amazing harmonies, and heart-warming lyrics is all it takes to create an album that will get stuck in peoples heads to the point where they know it by heart. Two-time Grammy Award winning band Pentatonix began with Scott Hoying, Mitch Grassi, and Kirstin Maldonado in their hometown Arlington, Texas. They soon added Avi Kaplan and Kevin Olusola into the band and became insanely popular worldwide in a matter of five years. Pentatonix are well known for their covers, one of their most popular ones being â€Å"Daft Punk,† which won a Grammy in 2015. Now, they have their own original album called Pentatonix which first came out on October 16, 2015. It hit number 1 on the Billboard 200 charts on October 22, 2016. In Pentatonix, every member serves a distinct purpose. Scott Hoying is the baritone. Hes one of the main singers. A baritone is an adult male who can sing the second to lowest note. We will write a custom essay sample on Pentatonix by Pentatonix or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Mitch Grassi is the tenor and Kirstin Maldonado is the soprano. They either provide breath-taking harmonies, or are the main singers, depending on the song. A tenor can sing the second to highest note, while a soprano can sing the highest note. Avriel â€Å"Avi† Kaplan is the bass. He plays a major part in the band; he is able to sing the lowest note and makes the song come to life. Finally, Kevin Olusola is the beatboxer. He makes drum-like sounds with his voice. Pentatonix’s originality shines because of the fact that most, if not all, of the music you hear in their videos, come from their voices. The sounds you hear, unlike most pop music, arentfrom someone sitting behind their computers adding beats and bass drops. Pentatonix can do all that and more, without editing their music. In my opinion, it’s iconic. Pentatonix is for people who love R-based pop music. Each song has its own unique sound. For example, in â€Å"Water,† Kirstin sings, â€Å"Just your love and not another / cause your embrace keeps me warmer / could I tell you this time / how I wish you were mine.† This song includes amazing harmonies provided by Scott and Mitch while Kirstin sings. The lyrics make you stop and smile, and can be relatable to many people. In â€Å"New Year’s Day,† they sing, â€Å"Take me all the way / hear me when I say / let’s kiss the past away / like New Year’s Day.† This chorus will not fail to make you tear up every time you hear its soulful echo. Kevin and Avi’s bass and beatboxing give the song emotion.In â€Å"Rose Gold,† Scott sings, â€Å"We could be timeless, we could be classic / we could be stars, we could be rose gold.† This is sung with so much passion, almost as if he is singing right to you. The final song on the a lbum is â€Å"Light in the Hallway.† This is personally one of my favorite songs because you can hear how much it means to Avi. â€Å"So count your blessings every day / it makes the monsters go away / and everything will be okay / you are not alone / you are right at home / goodnight, goodnight.† This song will give you chills every time you listen to it. Get your tissues ready, because the combination of the lyrics, Avi’s sad voice, and Scott, Mitch, Kirstin, and Kevin’s harmonies in the background, will make you unable to listen to this song without crying.As a whole, Pentatonix is an exceptional album that deserves all of the success it’s received. Every member of Pentatonix is extremely talented in their own ways. Hopefully, they will come out with another original album in 2017. They are currently on a world tour, which ends on November 22, 2016. While on the road, Pentatonix have continued to work hard and release covers. Before you can stop yourself, you’ll have every one of their albums memorized until the only words that can escape your mouth are song lyrics. Pentatonix Scores First No. 1 Album on Billboard 200 Chart.N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Oct. 2016. PENTATONIX LYRICS Water. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Oct. 2016. PENTATONIX LYRICS New Years Day. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Oct.2016. PENTATONIX LYRICS Light In The Hallway. N.p., n.d. Web. 23Oct. 2016. PENTATONIX LYRICS Rose Gold. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Oct.2016.

Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Love At Second Glance Essays - Aurora, Friendship, Anger

Love At Second Glance In theory, people make decisions about becoming involved, romantically or otherwise, with other people based upon a number of criteria with which they evaluate the qualities of the other person. In some situations an individual may consciously think about the criteria, or qualities, they are looking for in that individual and then evaluate if the person meets the criteria. In most cases however the person does not consciously think out this process, but simply "knows" if he or she likes the other person or not. In some cases, the most important criteria, at least initially, are surface type attributes, such as race, appearance, or material wealth. In addition, the individual will sometimes intuitively know that the other individual is not appropriate to start a relationship with but is overwhelmed with the surface appearance. For all of these reasons relationships will sometimes fail since the initial evaluation can be based upon qualities that are not truly the most important for a long lasting relationship. I will try to show that based upon two characters in American Knees, their relationships failed, or at least struggled, since they had not explored the most important qualities of the other person. A second sub-thesis of this discussion relates to relationships that are chosen for individuals. For example, a mother, father, sibling would fit into this category. In these situations, the individual does not do the same type of evaluation since there is no decision needed to become involved in the relationship. However, at some point in the life of an individual they actually do recognize that a relative meets, or does not meet, the most important criteria for a long lasting relationship. In these cases there can be anger and frustration since individuals may conclude that this person does not have the qualities you want and yet by definition they are chosen for you. I will show in Comfort Woman, that characters find-unappealing qualities in relatives, and this causes them frustration and anger, since they had no choice in establishing the relationship. There are a number of theoretical criteria that the average person uses for developing a relationship with an individual. This includes a vast array of items such as appearance, race, intelligence, friendliness, personality, humor, dedication, and overall pleasantness. In the book American Knees, there are two main characters named Raymond and Aurora, who exemplify this process. In particular, Raymond was attracted to his first wife Darleen, as well as Aurora, based primarily upon heritage. The entire subject of race and heritage is critical to each of them. There are many complicated feelings they each have about this subject and to some degree it overshadows all of the aspects of their lives. In many ways they do not learn more about each other since the complications of race are all encompassing. It appears as if Raymond initially neglects considering other important qualities about Aurora. His first thoughts are about race, "Was she part Korean or Japanese? Maybe he was altogether wrong and she was native Alaskan, Indian or Latino. What a relief that would be." He is almost joking to himself here, saying that this would simplify the entire thing. It seems that he is overly concerned about this aspect. Aurora also thinks of this subject from the start. Aurora thinks, "... hoped to god, he wasn't an insecure Asian male who would talk only to her." And " ...-just Asian enough to bring home to mother..." She next thinks through about what their first conversation would entail. She specifically thinks through questions, he will ask her, in order to determine her ancestry. Aurora was also giving significant thought in these first few moments about what she thought of him. The area that she is preoccupied with relates not only to race, but also to his physical appearance, and the garments he was wearing. She even tries to determine what part of the country he is from based upon his expensive and sophisticated clothes. During their first meeting the book describes in great detail, each of their thoughts towards the other. Some of the thoughts were prior to any conversation, and of course some are during their conversation. It is fairly clear, that the most significant thing that each is contemplating relates to surface issues, such as ancestry, where they work, how much money they earn, or sexual appeal. This is not uncommon in many people and if these qualities are appealing this can lead to a relationship before determining if the individual has other attributes that they like. The book indicates

Monday, March 16, 2020

Differentiation Ouline for Essay with Goals and Intervention Samples Essay Example

Bowen/Differentiation Ouline for Essay with Goals and Intervention Samples Essay Example Bowen/Differentiation Ouline for Essay with Goals and Intervention Samples Essay Bowen/Differentiation Ouline for Essay with Goals and Intervention Samples Essay Outline for Bowen paper on Beginning, Middle, End goals/interventions 1. a joing family as a coach, healthy triangle look up beginning stages of therapy limit emotional reactivity experimental therapy – teacher/coach b. therapeutic alliance/relationship c. how change brought about? Through insight†¦ For Bowen theory – insight gained by looking at patterns in famly/genogram For Behavior therapy – shaping For cognitive therapy – challenging destructive schema Structural therapy- realigning structure Bowen – 1. Insight2. Multi-generation transmission 3. Differentiation of self 2. skip . vignette – conceptualization/hypotheses 4. 3 stage treatment plan (beginning, middle, end of therapy) a. global goals b. interventions Beginning goals/interventions 1. Make client feel safe/build rapport/build relationship 2. Ask their goals 3. question about their family positions 4. empathy/active listening 5. symptom relief – ask about symptoms, wh at brings them to therapy, not taking sides, repeat (mirror), no judging a. Build working hypothesis – ask clarifying questions, seating position Middle goal for Bowenian Therapy 1. Id subsystems, hierachy, genome relationships . Bowen Goal: Begin challenging pathological beliefs/faulty cognitions (intervention) genogram 3. Bowen Goal: Reach differentiation Intervention 4 Bowen Goal: Assist family in looking at family dynamics: Intervention – Genogram End 1. Time to end when believe they are able to maintain change/and how a. Client/clients have maintained change for some time in therapy b. Learn to deal with loss, if attached to therapist c. Have a plan i. resources ii. index cards d. Review progress iii. Bowen copy of genogram, beginning and end iv. Bowen – copy of CED, other tests

Saturday, February 29, 2020

No Child Left Behind Is it Working Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

No Child Left Behind Is it Working - Essay Example Many children in the United States experience reading failure. According to the National Assessment f Educational Progress (NAEP) on reading in 2003, thirty-seven percent f fourth graders are reading below the Basic Proficiency level. This is the same level f failure that was reported in 1992 (Making NCLB work) Under this plan, all public schools students must be proficient in reading and math by the year 2014. Only students in second grade and beyond are required to test. In grades three through eight and once during high school, reading and math development will be calculated yearly. Testing in science will also be conducted by the end f the 2007-2008 school year. By the end f the 2005-2006 school year, teachers will also be required to be "highly qualified" (Wikipedia) According to this program, a highly qualified teacher is defined as an individual who has fulfilled the states' qualifications and licensure requirements. New teachers entering this field are required to acquire at least a bachelor's degree. If they will be teaching at an elementary school, they must pass a test known as the California Subject Examination for Teachers (CSET) and the California Basic Education Skills Test (CBEST). These tests replicate the subject matter understanding required to teach in California and demonstrates proficiency in basic reading and writing, mathematics and English. Teachers that are not new must pass a test in which state they teach in that demonstrates their subject understanding and teaching abilities. Each state has a curriculum structure. Each one summarizes the course f study by local school districts. This is how they develop programs directing state and local textbook adoption processes. Most states' average curriculum consists f English Language Arts, Mathematics, History/Social Science, and Science. Many states have no adopted standards in the remaining vicinities f curriculum such as foreign language, Physical Education and health. Each year schools, school districts, and the state must make adequate yearly progress (AYP). For Unified school districts K-12, 23.0% f their students must score proficient or above in ELA and 23.7% must do so in math. By the 2007-2008 school year, 34.0% must score proficient or above in ELA and 34.6% in math. Scores must improve annually with the same goal f 100% proficient or above by the 2013-2014 school year. States need to develop standards-based tests in science by the 2007-2008 school year (California School Accountability System under the Federal NCLB act). Under the accountability provisions, states must explain how they will close the achievement gap by making certain that all students reach academic proficiency. States must also generate annual state and school district report cards that notify parents and the surrounding communities regarding the state and school progress. Many states are requesting authorization to change the amount f students whose scores do not have to be calculated in required racial categories. Test scores are required to be reported by group such as race, disability, or economic circumstances. By law if one group f students fails to meet the standards, the whole school